Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Opera Singer As An Actor Music Essay

The Opera Singer As An Actor Music Essay In this dissertation emphasis will be placed on the marriage of three concepts namely: good voice singing technique, musicality and acting for opera (building the character) in the training of a successful opera singer hereafter referred to as the singer-actor. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the essential skills that needed to be acquired by the modern opera singer. The rationale therefore, is to provide guidelines for the minimum requirements for the training of the opera singer as singer-actor. Taking into consideration the demands on opera singers when taking part in an opera, the study was guided by the following question: How does the knowledge of good voice (a sound singing technique), musicality and building a character role benefit the opera singers performance? Evolving from the main research question, the following sub questions were formulated: What is a good voice within classical voice training methods? How can musicality contribute to an opera singers performance? What are the demands to build a character role? General and specific aims: The general aim of this study was to determine how the knowledge of a good voice, musicality and building a character role, benefit the opera singers performance. Specific aims: The specific aims of this study are: to define a good voice To define musicality to determine how building a character role contribute to an opera singers performance. Due to the limited nature of this study, only a literature study will be done. As an extension of this study, the researcher would follow an interpretivist paradigm with a qualitative approach which strives to comprehend the important skills an opera singer should have according to contemporary South African opera singers and their view of the importance of acting ability for successful opera. The study will be conceptualised in terms of and based on the following frameworks: The voice Musicality Acting ability Relationship between music and text For opera to retain its artistic relevance to, and impact on, the fabric of arts and culture, it can be argued that there are three fundamental elements to the performance of opera which need to be addressed, and which require academic input (herformulering), discipline regarding musicality as well as focussed tuition and practise (sweeping statement. Wie se so?). In a world of ever-increasing media coverage of artistic and musical artists and events, together with an ever-increasing sophistication of a wider audience, it is becoming increasingly challenging for the artist, and in particular, the opera singer, to be successful in his career. Key to this challenge is that the opera singer is left with no choice other than to develop skills beyond the purely technical expertise. It is imperative that, in order to be extraordinary and thereby successful, the opera singer has to master three co-functioning disciplines, namely the good voice, musicianship and acting ability (sit bronne in). Singers tend to take acting classes separate from their vocal training in order to improve their acting skills. However, they mostly discover that taking classes in spoken drama and dialogue helps up to a certain point, but when going back to singing opera, the acting strategies learnt in the drama class do not always migrate to the performance of the aria (cf. Bean: 2007:167). This lack of transition is a result of the unique relationship between the music and the stage character in opera, which is not taken into account in the training of purely spoken (non-musical) drama. Thus, the one aspect that separates the acting of a spoken drama from that of opera is the music that is performed by instruments and the human voice. (Bron) (Prof. Jak: kommentaar is dat dit self evident is, of vroeà «r genoem moet word). The argument specific to this dissertation is that the preparation and development of the opera singer (or singer-actor) has to facilitate three equally important, inter-linked and overlapping platforms of the Good Voice (singing technique), the discipline of musicianship and The Ability to Act (building the character). ( dink dit is aan die begin gesà ª) In order to deliver a masterful opera performance, the singer actor needs to depict a character successfully. The opera singer needs to be a singer-actor who has mastered the following three pillars (Good Voice, Musicianship and Acting Ability) of the craft and art of Opera Performance. Each of these pillars deserves equal attention with particular reference to the input, mentoring/development and training curriculum of the opera singer (Bron) Further to the intention of the dissertation, it will be important that there are appropriate and comprehensive definitions of these three equally important elements that are based on the relevant literature and which build on the existing body of knowledge in this field. Specifically, this study will integrate the definitions of A Good Voice, Musicianship and Acting Ability in terms applicable to the Singer-Actors optimal performance of Opera. Furthermore, in this dissertation emphasis will be placed on singing techniques, the elements of musicianship, and various relevant acting strategies in the training of a successful opera singer. This dissertation will also include the identification of relevant areas of scholarly attention and future academic research that will add to the existing body of knowledge in this arena. An in-depth literature study of relevant and contemporary sources on these topics have been done to guide the research. Method of research The following methods of research were used to answer the research questions: Consulting of the following databases: JSTOR, Google Scholar, Periodical archive online and IIMP; Literature study Interpretation of information and conclusions A study of Largo al factotum from Puccinis Il Barbiere di Seviglia on the basis of the score and recordings, in order to ensure a common understanding of how the study could apply to the aria Before the conceptualized terms will be discussed, a concept clarification of the relevant issues at hand, will be provided. 1.1 Concept clarification The Good Voice / The self-amplified singing voice The good voice can be defined as the ability of the opera singer to project the voice in a way that its heard over and above the full orchestra accompanying the singers. This view correlates with the description of Gilfrey (2007:1) who describes the voice as a classical technique, a manner of singing that projects the voice over a large orchestra in a large theatre. Four elements are essential to produce a sound, namely a vibrating object, a power source to make the object vibrate, a medium through which the vibrations are transmitted and apparatus to receive the vibrations (McKinney,1999:20). The self-amplified singing voice as described by Gilfrey (2007:1) is the single most important element of opera; the one that distinguishes opera not only from spoken drama, but also from rock and pop music, from jazz and from musical theatre (as it is performed today). Optimal Acoustic Output Acoustic output refers to the optimal projection of the voice to enhance the correct and optimal usage of the voice as an instrument. According to Titze (2002: 367 376) mean glottal airflow (or, alternatively, glottal resistance) has been a target for optimising vocal output power in voice therapy and singing training. Glottal airflow refers to the space between the vocal cords (the fleshly parts of the air passage inside the throat) which produce the sound of the voice by fast or slow moments, in which this space is repeatedly opened and closed (Longman, 1980:484). Generator / Breath Management / Breath Breathing is a natural process which begins at birth an ends with death. This is a natural process for which no training is acquired. The rate of breathing is governed by the bodys need for oxygen and needs no conscious controls. The essential difference between breathing to live and breathing to sing, lies in the amount of conscious control exerted (McKinney, 1994: 46). In other words, the breathing process is a spontaneous event for the normal person, but a skill that needs to be mastered by the opera singer to optimise breath control and support for the voice. Vibrator The word vibration of the voice refers to The function of the vibrator is to set the column of still air in the throat and also that in the windpipe in vibration. The vibratory element of the larynx consists of a highly skilful compromise on the part of nature which enable the opera singer to phonate without interfering with the breathing capacity (Kelsey, 1950: 66). This vibration is a function of the larynx; a device similar to the diaphragm of a sound-system speaker, is the anatomical device through which the sound is created while simultaneously allowing the singer to continue breathing through the same gap (or slit) by which the airflow is controlled. This control is the output of extensive skill learning, disciplined practise and deliberate conscious control (Kelsey, 1950: 66-67). Structure and Function Resonator / Supraglottic Activity The word resonator refers to an apparatus for increasing the resonance of sound (Longman, 1980:942). For the purpose of this study, the word resonance can be defined as secondary vibrations produced by sound waves from another vibrating body (Lessac, 1997:13). He also distinguishes between two types of resonance, namely direct or enforsed resonance and indirect or sympathetic resonance. Direct resonance occurs when a vibrating body is placed in direct physical contact with another substance. For the opera singer direct resonance could be the sound resonating with the outer surfaces of your teeth. Indirect resonance occurs when the sound waves of a vibrating body set up vibrations in a substance some distance away. Sympathetic resonance occurs as the vocal sound waves, travelling through air space from the vocal folds, make contact with the hard pallet and then with the nasal bone (Lessac, 1997:13). The ability to resonate can therefore be described as the amplifying of the human voic e. This amplifying can be divided into three sections, including the air contained in the lungs and windpipe, the air contained in the throat and, that contained in the suprapalatal cavity. Each of these can be seen an air-conditioner. Classical Technique (sit nog iets in of haal uit, PL) In popular usage, art or serious music as opposed popular music The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. CHAPTER 2: The Good Voice in Classical Singing Before the good voice can be discussed, the anatomy of voice production needs to be clarified in short. Lessac (1997:14) defines the term voice box of human sound box as the cavity or enclosure where the tone is strengthened, amplified and enriched by resonance and wave reflection. According to Lessac, the voice box comprise two areas: a major adjustable area right above the larynx and the oral cavity and nondadjastable area in the pharynx, the nose, the forehead and adjacent structures. This soundbox can be describe as the singing meganism of which all the parts interdependent of each other, eah of which plays a crucial role in producing the good voice. The good voice as defined in par 1.1 takes years of concentrated training. This focus on singing technique is the primary focus of most singers studies (Gilfrey, 2007:1). A whole voice approach is beneficial for both singer and actor; however actor training programs dont include singing, and vice versa. Acting is becoming increasingly important for the opera singer, but is seldom supported by the prerequisites of theatre voice and movement (Melton Tom, 2003:135). Sà ª nog iets oor hoekom training belangrik is. Singing is both a science and an art. Most teachers have at least some appreciation for a scientific singing method and those who dont often claim to have discovered some long-lost piece of wisdom. This wisdom is generally already incorporated in the teachings of a well-trained singer. There are some fads that come and go but a singer with good technique and access to his or her emotions will please any audience and have a much broader career with greater longevity (Brown, 2004: 97-104). Technique is central to singing opera, but singing is also an art form, and no art form can be realised by the use of technique alone. Merging voice technique, musicality and emotion through competent acting skill is something that must be taught from the very beginning of the Opera Singers development of his/her career. This is because, when occupied in the emotion of the moment, the good voice will acquire nuances that are quintessentially important to conveying the emotional elements of the opera and will thus elevate the singer to a higher level of performance and riveting engagement with the audience. Gebruik onderstaande as daar nog inligting daaroor is, anders voeg saam, PL Every aspect of the voice, used directly of indirectly affects the whole mechanism. For example alignment and breathing are integrally connected to the performers range, resonance and articulation. For this reason, some of the relevant aspects affecting the good voice, will be discussed below. 2.1 Vowel modification Vowel Modification and Primal Sound Christy (1961) means that an important criteria for good singing habits is the homogenic shaping of vowels, in other words, they should sound as if they fit together, the vowels must be consistent with each other. Many professional singers never master the art of even vocal production. This can be ascribed to vocal coaches not fully grasping the concept of vowel placement. When this concept is fully understood it is impossible for a singer to not produce vowels freely and comfortably. In the first volume Christy states that once a single vowel is mastered the singer must focus on uniting the remaining vowels in accordance with that of the first. He means that the different vowels should attain a similar sound without losing its distinctive character. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦this is another way of saying vowels have to be equalized by having a common, fundamental tonal characteristic. The fundamental tone of the human voice is the huh sound. According to Christy this sound should be considered the basic reference to vowel placing because the uh sound is the most natural sound that can be produced, as the pharynx is relaxed and in its natural position. Oren C. Brown concurs with Christy, but describes the uh sound as the primal sound: Primal sounds are involuntary. They are the sounds you were born with. In Beijing , Basel or Boston, a babys cry at birth is his primal sound. In 1963, Peter F. Oswald mad a phonetic analysis of the babys cry. He labeled the initial sound as a schwa [Éâ„ ¢], (uh as in about), which linked the cry to a babys first word, mama [mÉâ„ ¢mÉâ„ ¢]. Mama is the first word spoken by babies throughout the whole world. In Korea the word is ama, with the vowel preceding the consonant. (Brown 1998) p. 1 The sound identified by both Brown and Christy can therefore be described as the primal- or natural relaxed sound. As practical advice Brown suggest testing the sound through a range of exploratory exercises: making the huh sound in a short repetitive sequence (as if laughing), or a long relaxed sustained huh (like a sigh). He also suggests sliding the huh up and down the vocal range noting that the sound becomes lighter in the higher range and darker in the lower range. He means that this is natural and advises the singer to note his or her voices natural inclinations. Judith Litante also mentions in Natural Approach to Singing (p32) that the vowels used in Italian forms a basis for the study of vowels in singing. She believes that they are pure. The reason for this is that Italian vowels are a compact basis for both English and other non Latin based languages. In English one finds many diphthongs. She means that employing these pure vowels or primal sound, as previously mentioned would eliminate the distorted pronunciation of diphthongs; for example extending the last syllable when singing say, it becomes sayee or kind becomes kieend. When the vowels are aligned and the vocal structures are in a natural posision, these kinds of distortion is eradicated. 2.2 Breath management Breathing techniques need to be considered holistically and consciously controlled until it becomes an unconscious competence. Sufficient and natural supply of air is needed for voice production. A good posture is an essential part of breathing and should be developed to support the opera singer in his breath management (Brown, 2004:17). This view is supported by Mckinney (1994:46-64) who state that there is a direct and positive correlation between correct posture (diaphragm control, and muscular movements of the chest, back and abdomen) and effective breathing in singing. According to McKinney (1994:48) breathing has four stages, namely a breathing-in period (inhalation), a setting-up-controls period (suspension), a controlled-exhalation period (phonation) and a recovery period. These stages should be repeated till the opera singer has the ability to go through the stages unconsciously. This process can be compared to the person who learns to drive a motorcar and has to concentrate on each step till he gets the ability to perform all the steps automatically. For the opera singer this refers to preparing to breathe, preparing for the phrase, physically singing the phrase and recovering in order for the process to repeat. 2.3 The vibrator 2.4 The resonator 2.5 The articulator Classical Opera training and singing versus Singing pop or secular music The single most important element of opera, the one that distinguishes opera not only from spoken drama, but also from rock and pop music, from jazz and from musical theatre (as it is performed today), is the self-amplified singing voice. This is a voice produced with a classical technique, a manner of singing that projects the voice over a large orchestra in a large theatre. The learning of the singing technique this voice requires, takes years of concentrated training. This focus on singing technique is the primary focus of most singers studies. CHAPTER 3: Musicianship How the Classical Singer Accesses Demonstrates Musicianship To acquire musicianship a high level of artistic interpretation of songs and knowledge of repertoire is required through years of training. One can not over emphasize the importance of musicianship. It is simply not suffice for a musician to have a musical ear, theoretical and musical knowledge, play an instrument or respond emotionally to music. The artist must be a musician i.e. a singer (Christy Vol 1: 7). According to Miller (Principles of singing p1) a singer can acquire musicianship through classes, studying an instrument (ex. Piano), performing in choirs or through private study and the self-exploration of music. Even though a singer that has exceptional vocal talent, he should receive professional music training and the participation in solo or choral ensembles especially in the first year of study. Many vocal teachers might disagree with this statementà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ A singer with a natural talent and an ear for music must be able to imitate sounds and pitches and not just h ear this internally, for example; in a singing lesson the student listens to the vocal teacher and then imitates the vocal sound of the teacher. The same principle applies with rhythm. A sound inner sense of rhythm will contribute to the holistic musicianship of the singer. Besides musicianship, there is also the interpretation of music. According to Christy (1961: Vol 2:110) Interpretation is the emotional and artistic portrayal; the summation of all music. According to Christy (1961:Vol2:110) Musicianship is the science of music and interpretation . A good singer should be familiar with all styles of music and song literature. The singer must be trained in a style and in the interpretation of songs in a particular style. A song has a style that must be established and followed through to the end. It is possible for a singer to become comfortable with a particular style that he can do well in, but he will not realise that what he steers clear of could be very valuable for his musical development. Therefore the teacher should analyse, guide and discuss the songs with the singer, in order to identify the accompanying details of expression. (Christy 1961:Vol2:110-111). The basis of musicianship include the abilities to read and interpret rhythms and intervals, playing the piano accompaniments, acquiring knowledge of the basics of theory and harmony, music and musicians in terms of vocal and instrumental style, schools and song literature. (Christy 1961:Vol1:7) According to Christy 1961:Vol:109, (quoting Curt Atler in the art of accompanying and coaching: 1965: 219) interpretation may be defined as the singers act of expressing and communicating meaning, mood and epic, a comedy, or just an expression set to music all in capsule form. To interpret music is to express or reproduce it intrinsically by the singer, in the score. Due to the limitations in music notation, it is the responsibility of the singer to interpret and express the fine distinction between tonal colour, tempo and intensity of the composers interpretation. The expression can be found in the text and in the setting. According to Christy 1961:Vol2:112, when the same song is sung by two sensitive artists, it is highly unlikely that the general style, tone, colour and mood will be markedly different; however, dynamics, tempo, word accentuation, and innumerable details often are. Thus, the keys must be studied by the singer in order to express and keep the interpretation on trac k. The two requirements for interpretation include the fidelity to the composers intent and that it must contain an essentially creative element of the interpreters own making, illuminating the subject with fresh light. (Christy 1961:Vol1:190). Furthermore, the expression must be honest, sincere, simple and direct, which means that nothing must be added or placed over the music that will distract attention from the work itself. Also, the singer must reproduce the music with insight, imagination and vitality in his own unique way it must not be copied from others. Interpretation has four main factors including appropriate and fervent mood or emotion, eloquent diction, adequate technique and a natural, sincere stage presence. (Christy 1961:Vol1:190). EMBELLISHMENTS Embellishments comprise of, but are not limited to the appoggiatura, acciaccatura, mordent, gruppetto or turn, trill and the portamento. These are techniques that are of vital importance in the interpretation of music. In the appoggiatura, the singer usually has to apply his own taste due to its indeterminate value. There are some accented notes in a melody that form the bass of the intervals since they lean on the next note to which they descend. The appoggiatura was used by singers long before it was written down, because of the enjoyable sound and is often absent in the score. (Shakespeare: 115). The acciaccatura and mordent is different from the appoggiatura as it is written with a stroke through the stem and tail. This does not have an affect on the value of the next note but it is sung much quicker. The acciaccatura is usually a small note where as the appoggiatura is written as a whole note. (Shakespeare: 115). The gruppetto or turn is a group of three or four notes. If the higher interval is a tone, the lower tone is a semitone and if both intervals are semitones it is known as a chromatic turn. (Shakespeare: 115). Sung in rapid alternation with the note of the scale above it, the trill is an embellishment that has a principle note that belongs to the harmony of the composition. A trill is usually finished with a turn. (Shakespeare: 115). The portamento carries the voice from one interval to the next, then passing lightly through the intervening tones. It also indicates a phrase and the Legato rendering of a passage. (Behnke: The technique of singing: 99) Legato Slur Intonation Colour in the voice timbre (emotion) Following the conductor Discuss the concept of DISCIPLINE Technical aspects According to Hayward (see 1994:205) style can be interpreted in many different ways. Interpretation can be defined as communicating understanding. Interpretation can best be expressed in a persons own language according to James Nolan in his book Interpretation, Techniques and exercises. Expression and conveying of meaning, feeling and idea through sound can be defined as interpretation (Christy 1967:109). CHAPTER 4: Acting Within the South African context, this integration of The Good Voice, Musicianship and Acting is deficient. There are various reasons for this lack of attention given to the development of acting skills with singer-actors. One is that there are not many qualified tutors in South African institutions that combine the field of acting and musical performance. Another reason is the absence of appropriate development programs and relevant material in curriculums. As a result, there is less interest from students to pursue a career as a singer-actor. In support of this argument, Knobel and Steinert (2002:155) claim that the acting teacher should be just as important to you as your singing teacher and can be of great help to you throughout your singing career. Interestingly enough, contrary to this understanding are the arguments of authors such as Bean, Goldovsky and Balk, who posit that acting classes à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ are very often of little benefit to the singing actor Bean (2007:167). These two opposing views illustrate that there are no consensus among academics about the importance of acting skills (al dan nie) of the opera singer. This statement is underpinned by the neglect of some higher education institutions offering voice training, where little or no training in acting is provided. In the quotation below, Bandelj truly captures the spontaneous physiological, psychological and emotional reactions which authentic acting can bring about in the actors performance. When a singer acts and sings in a mechanical way, it often comes across as disjointed or in some cases ridiculous. It is the emotion that breathes life into the song and makes it relevant, connecting with the audience and transcending facial contortions (Bandelj, 2003:393-394). To avoid that, an actor should utilise the all the involuntary muscle contractions that emotions evoke in the body, either by recalling their own past experiences or imagining themselves personally going through what the character is experiencing. This makes the whole action more believable. Gilfrey, Bonavia agrees that the ability to act, though considerably under-estimated, is not the only or the most necessary qualification for the operatic stage. Acting in opera is a comparatively modern accomplishment (Bonavia, 1915:79). This observation, by Bonavia, pays homage to the deeply rooted tradition of well-respected opera singers being famous for their magnificence of voice; but of their skill in acting there is hardly any mention to be found anywhere (Bonavia, 1915:79). ( Dink hier aan enige ou opera wat opgevoer is en waar daar slegs aandag aan die sang gegee is) Ultimately, Bonavia contradicts (to some extent) the previous argument by identifying an exception. That is Chaliapin who, according to Bonavia, provides the audience with ever-changing shades of facial expression à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the whole character left vividly impressed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Chaliapin is the ideal actor (Bonavia, 1915:80). In terms of the attempts made at acting within the Opera world, there is a history and tradition of operatic gesture and the surprising persistence of melodramatic effects and gestural overstatement (Smart, 2004:26). While this is certainly applicable to the Nineteenth Century, we need to be cognisant of how this tradition of gestural overstatement may be (erroneously) assumed to be the only acting required of the singer actor in the twenty-first Century. That is, even in the times of Verdi, the role of gesture à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (grew) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ as formal conventions loosened (Smart, 2004:136). The appropriate question therefore is, to what extent have formal conventions loosened further, particularly in a world hallmarked by electronic media and social networking? As indicated in the introduction, Television and DVDs, have provided unrestricted access to Opera to an ever-increasing sophisticated and demanding audience in the entertainment space. This view is further reinforced by the writing of RePass (1953:10-18) who states that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦(PL). Building the Character The creation of a character role by the singer-actor is the basis and starting-point of the combination of singing and acting. While it cannot be doubted that an excellent singing technique à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (viz., The Good Voice and Musicianship) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ is essential to the success of any opera singer, other skills required for a convincing performance, among them acting, are often given less attention by singers and their teachers (Gilfrey, 2007:1). Innate talent is not the sole factor as the ability of a singer-actor to create a character role is severely impacted by the cultural beliefs of what acting is and also how it is measured. When keeping this in mind it becomes evident that the creation of a character, especially in the case of singer-actors, are based on the teachings of Konstantin Stanislavsky better known as the method acting technique. The method acting technique is an approach that the Russian actor developed to whose approach stresses the internal preparation of actors (Bandelj, 2003:393). This focus differs from that of the other schools of acting namely The English School of Acting, The Bertold Brechts epic theatre and Japanese Noh Drama. The interaction experienced by the singer-actors on stage and the director with the constant feedback assures a more lifelike portrayal. The fundamental driver of method acting is the wish to reproduce reality. All (acted) behaviours and interactions need to be seen to be psychologically, emotionally and socially authentic and plausible, while concurrently acting as an integrating mechanism to the plot and to the other cast members. Drawing on his/her own experiences and observations the actor needs to appear spontaneous while using objects in both a symbolic (or metaphorical way) and a literal way (Bandelj, 2003:393). This, and the additional use of props to facilitate the portrayal of the situation, are all tied together by the passion of the actor and the pursuit of truth as art imitates life or indeed verisimilitude (Bandelj, 2003:394). The quality of the voice has much more to do with the correct training and technique, rather than the singers natural endowment, especially later in life as the singer ages. *The W questions to build a character role (also mentioned in the PowerPoint) Who? What? Where? When? Why? And HOW? Contributing Elements to Building a

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Marketing Strategy of Ethiad Airways

Table of Contents 1. 0 Introduction 3 2. 0 External Environment Analysis3 2. 1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis 3 2. 2 SWOT Analysis 5 3. 0 Marketing Strategy Analysis 6 3. 1 Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning 6 3. 1. 1 Segmentation 6 3. 1. 2 Targeting 6 3. 1. 3 Positioning 7 4. 0 Strategic Alliances 8 5. 0 Sponsorship 9 6. 0 Contribution to the Competitive Advantage and its Sustainability10 6. 1 Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning 10 6. 2 Strategic Alliances and Sponsorship 10 7. 0 Conclusion11 8. 0 References12 Word Count: 3282 1. 0 IntroductionEtihad Airways, the national airline of the United Arab Emirates, has in just eight years established itself as the world’s leading airline. Set up by Royal Decree in July 2003, Etihad commenced commercial operations in November 2003 and became the fastest growing airline in the history of commercial aviation (Etihad, 2012). Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, is the airline’s hub. The airline seeks to reflect the best of Arabian hospitality – cultured, considerate, warm and generous – as well as enhance the prestige of Abu Dhabi as a centre of hospitality between East and West.However, nowadays it is very hard to maintain the business in such a competitive market in times of recovery from the recent recession. Therefore, it is crucial to understand that just providing a service is not enough. Firstly, this report overviews the external environment in which Etihad has to survive and compete, evaluating its main challenges and opportunities. Secondly, Etihad’s main marketing strategies will be identified and critically discussed. Thirdly, the extent to which adopted marketing strategies help to achieve and sustain the competitive advantage will be analysed.Finally, the conclusion will be drawn based on achieved knowledge and personal assumptions. 2. 0 External Environment Analysis For better understanding of the marketing strategy that Etihad uses, it is cr ucial to analyse the external environment in which the company operates. 2. 1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis In order to examine the positioning strategy and forces of the external environment that may potentially affect the Etihad’s performance, it has been decided to adopt the classical Porter’s Five Forces model.By using this model, it is possible to judge the extent to which an external environment is able to shape the costs, the prices and the profits of the organisation (Porter, 1980). * Competitive rivalry in the industry – high In terms of competitors, Etihad Airlines’ main competitors are the companies operating in Middle East, which are Emirates Airlines, Quatar Airways and Gulf Air. These airlines operate in a higher price and quality spectrum than, for example, Air Arabia and are being direct competitors for each other (McKechnie et al. , 2008).Rivalry between these companies is very intensive, as there are a small number of competitors on the market. * Bargaining power of customers – low In order to have a significant amount of power in the industry, there should be a few customers who can dictate their rules to the organisations, as for example in some B2B cases. However, there are millions of customers, who are willing to fly to and from Middle East, where Etihad operates, therefore, customers have a very limited power. * Bargaining power of suppliers – high For the airlines organisations the main suppliers are the aircraft manufacturers and the oil companies.In both cases there are a very few of them. Therefore, airline industry companies have a very limited power over their suppliers. Additionally, as it has been announced by the International Air Transport Association (2008), the global airline industry possesses losses due to the increased oil prices which also decrease the industry’s profitability. * Threat of new entrants – low The threat of new entrants depends on the number an d complexity of the barriers to entry. The barrier of the starting capital or investment is extremely high in the airline industry.Also, there are a lot of legal or patents issues with opening and maintaining of the airline organisation, which also is a barrier to entry. The brand loyalty is another very important barrier to entry. When choosing the airlines, customers, especially â€Å"the high profile† ones, are being very careful about health and safety, comfort and other details, therefore tend to choose companies with the brand they trust. Overall, the threat of new entrants is low, because there is a number of very hard to overcome barriers to entry, and if the small company appears on the market, it tends to be absorbed by one of the major players in the industry. Threat of substitutes – low Airlines industry – being an important sector of travel and tourism industry will have such potential substitutes as the sea, railway and road types of transportation . However, as Etihad is operating in an upper-class prices level, the threat of substitutes would be fairly low. In terms of potential business travellers, the time would be more important than money for them. In terms of leisure tourists, the prices may matter, however, cruise ships’ tickets tend to be more expensive than the planes’ ones.Therefore, if the experience of cruising is not extremely important for the customers, they would prefer travelling by air. 2. 2 SWOT Analysis After looking at the overall external environment, it is important to evaluate Etihad’s main strengths and weaknesses, suggesting what opportunities and threats are there, by using a classical SWOT model. 1. Strengths: * Well settled airlines company, by February 2012, operating a fleet of 63 Airbus and Boeing aircraft (Etihad, 2012) * Over seven million travellers per year with 1000 flights a week, 84 destinations in 52 countries. * Global sponsorship of events and sports clubs. Freque nt-flyer program â€Å"Etihad Guest Programme†, considered being innovative, offering greater flexibility to its customers (McKechnie et al. , 2008). * Global Awards received in 2009 and 2010, as the world’s leading airline. * More than 30 awards received for service by the World Travel Awards (WTA) (Etihad, 2012). 2. Weaknesses: * Failure of the bid to sponsor Manchester United team. * Still fairly underdeveloped in comparison with company’s main competitors Emirates Airline (170 aircraft, 115 destinations) and Quatar Airways (132 aircraft, 100 destinations) (Emirates, 2012; Quatar, 2012). . Opportunities: * 100 aircraft on order, including 10 Airbus A380s, the world’s largest passenger aircraft (Etihad, 2012). * The location gives higher opportunities for growth and developments. United Arabic Emirates is a very rich country with extremely quickly growing business and tourism sectors, additionally UAE is a member of OPEC, which also may help with oil pr ices negotiations. 4. Threats: * Global rise of fuel prices. * Terrorists’ threats to airlines’ industry in general. 3. 0 Marketing Strategy AnalysisThe main component of the firm’s marketing strategy and the rationale for this strategy in light of the environmental conditions in which it operates; 3. 1 Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning In marketing, segmentation, targeting and positioning are inseparable as they all related to each other. Segmentation is dividing the market into different groups with similar needs. Targeting is determining which offerings to make to each market segment and then the final step is to position the brand within the target market (Hooley and Saunders, 1993).Traditionally, airlines segment their customers in order to align their product strategy according to the different segments (Teichert et al, 2008). 3. 1. 1 Segmentation Market Segmentation was defined by Baines et al (2008, p. 217) as the division of a market into differen t groups of customers with distinctly similar needs. Alternatively, Kotler et al (2005, p. 391) add that these groups of customers have different needs, characteristics and behaviours and they require different marketing or product mixes. Customers can be segmented according to geographic, demographic, psychographic and behaviour variables.Etihad segment their customers according to three different boarding classes, which are: Diamond First Class, Pearl Business Class and Coral Economy. Each class is aimed at a different customer segment. Diamond First Class is aimed at wealthy individuals and business people who are willing to maintain their luxurious lifestyle in the air. Pearl Business is targeted at business and leisure travellers who are willing to pay more to enjoy a better flying experience. Coral Economy is aimed at customers who are on a budget but willing to enjoy a comfortable flying experience with the highest level of service.It is worth noting that Etihad is a five sta r airline and provides the highest level of service. According to Milne (2009) Etihad segment their customers according to business, religious, personal and tourist purposes. The rationale behind Etihad’s segmentation is to appeal to all types of customers with different income levels. Based on the prices that Etihad charge, it is clear to see that they aim for the middle and upper class social sector customers who command high standards of hospitality and luxury. 3. 1. 2 TargetingOnce a company has segmented their customers into different groups based on their characteristics, the next step is to target their customers with products and services that might appeal to that particular customer segment. Etihad airlines follow a differentiated marketing approach which involves targeting several market segments and designing separate offers for each (Kotler et al, 2005, p. 419). Etihad is different from their rivals because they are smaller airline but they are a luxury brand and offer personalised services to all their customers in spite of what class they are travelling in.By differentiating the market, this might lead to higher sales volumes for Etihad because they are able to exploit the segments with their offerings. The benefits of the strategy are its difficulty for competitors to copy and the level of service cannot be obtained anywhere else by the customer. A disadvantage of the strategy is the high volume of resources required to meet the needs of different customers, resulting in a loss of economies of scales and increased operating costs for the company. 3. 1. Positioning A positioning strategy determines where the business competes, how it competes and the choice of differential advantage which dictates how it competes (Doyle and Stern, 2006, p. 84). Positioning is important for an organisation because it is a way for a business to stand out from its rivals and let the customers to identify the brand easily (Baines, 2008, p. 251). Etihad positio ns itself within the airline industry as a luxury brand which offers 5 star hospitality and luxury personalised service.Etihad’s on-board services are hospitality orientated and are similar to those of 5 star hotels. The airline industry is very competitive and it is hard to differentiate between the quality of services because they almost the same and there is not much of a distinctive difference between them. Etihad has a competitive advantage in this market by starting out as a luxury brand form the outset. Other airlines are now trying to raise their standards but this will take a long time to achieve. Etihad is positioned at the high end of the airline industry.In comparison to RyanAir and Easyjet, these airlines are at two extremes of the scale and it is clear that Etihad does have a strategy that makes it different from all the airlines on the market. Because Etihad has positioned itself well within the industry, it has capitalised on its uniqueness. The company achiev ed a huge success in the short time of operating and established a strong sustainable market position. Looking at the STP of Etihad in the light of the environmental conditions in which it operates, it is clear to see that the conditions are a little bit tough due to competition from cheaper airlines and the gloomy economic outlook.Due to the recession, people are tightening their belts and spending less, therefore most people would prefer to pay less to fly to their chosen destinations. This is where Etihad stand to lose out to cheaper airline companies. 40% of their revenue comes from economy class seats, therefore if they price themselves too high in these current economic conditions, they risk losing a huge chunk of their revenue to other airlines because customers will always go for the cheaper airline ticket. In terms of competition, Emirates & Qatar Airways are Etihad’s biggest competitors, fighting for the same customers.Also these two companies are more established a nd have a bigger customer base than Etihad. Etihad is still a very young company being vulnerable to competition. However, it seems they are doing very well and recently broke even, planning to expand, while maintaining their current market position. All this can be accredited to their solid marketing strategy which they are using to maximise their benefit and strengthen their position within this market. 4. 0 Strategic Alliances Strategic alliances reduce the boundaries between firms and enable easier flow of knowledge across those boundaries.This process creates the possibility for organisations to share administrative authority, form social links and joint ventures (Badaracso, 1991). One of the reasons why firms engage in strategic alliances includes sufficient resources, low pace of innovation, low technology, high manufacturing cost and market access (Doz, 1996). Another reason to collaborate in strategic alliances is to create a competitive advantage over competitors in the ma rket (Lei and Slocum, 2005). Also, strategic alliance help companies to bring their products on to the new innovation level (Zhang, 2010).The advantage of strategic alliances is to share the risk and cost of products. Firms join strategic alliances for compiling technologies and assets, enhancing easier access to resources and technologies (Ohmae, 1989). Firms could assure the sufficiency of their resources, that the new technologies to maintain their advantages with the strategic alliances (Ireland, et al. , 2002). The disadvantages of strategic alliances is that organisations might give their partners more than they gain, the exchange of resources, benefits and knowledge should be reciprocated between the firms.Organizations could stand the chance of losing their competitive advantages if they provide benefits such as resources, knowledge and technology. Most strategic alliances don’t maintain their cooperative relationships for a long term as most strategic alliances are b ased on the current benefits rather than future competitive advantages. Also, in strategic alliances, the effect of competition can lead to aggressive knowledge acquisition from partner firms (Kaplan, et al. , 2010). Notably, many alliances fail as a result of inter firm rivalry (Park and Ungson, 2001).When firms merely pursue self-interests (competition) but neglect common benefits (derived from cooperation), partner firms may lose motivation to continue the alliance. Implementing any organisational alliance successfully depends upon a firm’s knowledge and ability to manage interdependencies with a partner through on-going coordination with that partner, to credibly convey relevant information and knowledge to the partner, and to develop social bonds with the partner (Ireland, et al. , 2002).Strategic alliance between airlines, as defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is â€Å"a merging of resources, operations, of financial interests between [one] entity an d [another] entity (Vander-Kraats, 1993). This entity could be an air carrier or a repair station and could involve the sharing of parts or the utilization of mechanics, pilots, and flight attendants†. Some of the strategic alliance adopted by Etihad can include code-sharing agreements, marketing arrangements, procurement policies, system commonality, and interchanges of flight-crew personnel and sponsorship with other major organisation (Vander-Kraats, 1993).Etihad pursuit of code sharing agreement has become a key part of its marketing strategy. A  codeshare agreement, sometimes simply  codeshare, is an aviation business arrangement where two or more airlines share the same flight. A seat can be purchased on one airline but is actually operated by a cooperating airline under a different  flight number or code. Etihad has a major partnership with Virgin Blue’s group of airlines which enables Virgin Blue’s international brand â€Å"V Australia† to op erate joint services with Etihad. Combined, these two airlines offer joint networks of more than 100 destinations (Etihad, 2012).To succeed, alliance partners must encourage true collaboration beyond the formal governance structure and learn how to adapt and integrate knowledge acquired from the alliance to serve the specific needs of their own innovative efforts (Hughes and Weiss, 2007). Through these alliances Etihad strengthen their core-competence such as stronger brand name, and capture a stronger client base. 5. 0 Sponsorship Etihad’s sponsorships portfolio includes sports and major tourism events in the U. A. E and different regions in the world.Commercial sponsorships is defined as a cash investment in an activity, person or event, while in return gaining the access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that activity or person by the investor (Meenagham, 1991). Sponsorships provide the mechanism for changing, adjusting or reinforcing brand equity sup ported on updated processing of attributes, benefits and attitudes (Keller, 1998). Corporate sponsorships are used to enhance the brand equity by raising awareness and creating positive brand associations in the mind of consumers (Gwinner and Eaton, 1999; Meenagham, 1991).This highlights the effects and significance of strong brands as it possesses the ability to attract a wide audience. The advantages of sponsorships include the promotion of caring attitude and goodwill. The good example of successful sponsorship is Etihad’s stadium and Etihad’s association with Manchester city and a football team which attracts a wide audience (Etihad, 2012). The disadvantage of sponsorships is that the investments made by the sponsors do not always guarantee that the objectives will be achieved.In the case of Etihad, investing in sport teams can backfire if they don’t meet the expectations the firm had for their performance. The final disadvantage of sponsorships involves any bad publicity derived from the benefactor will inevitably affect the brand name associated. 6. 0 Contribution to the Competitive Advantage and its Sustainability After analysing Etihad’s main marketing strategies, the discussion below will be about how each of the components of these strategies contributes to the firm’s competitive advantage. 6. Segmentation, Positioning and Targeting Segmentation gives Etihad a competitive advantage because it helps them differentiate and understand their customers’ needs more and helps improve their offering to the different types of customers. By understanding their customers’ needs better, they can gain an advantage over their rivals. On the other hand, every airline segments their customers according to the different classes therefore there is not much of an advantage since they all have a similar system of segmenting their customers.Etihad’s positioning gives them a competitive advantage because they positio n themselves as a 5 star airline offering 5 star hotel quality services on board. Their service on board is what sets them apart from their competitors. This advantage is sustainable in the long run provided they maintain their high standards throughout. Also, in terms of positioning, Etihad found a â€Å"gap† in the market by using Abu Dhabi Airport as their base rather than Dubai airport because of the cheaper airport fees and taxes which gives them a cost saving competitive advantage.By targeting a specific demographic, Etihad’s marketing campaigns are likely to be more cost and time efficient as it will be highly relevant to the target market’s needs and it enables them to stand out from their competitors. 6. 2 Strategic Alliances and Sponsorships Strategic alliances have enabled Etihad to create a competitive advantage in their industry and make this advantage sustainable. Etihad engage in strategic alliances as a way of seeking to reduce competition in the ir quest to raise profits (Badaracco, 1991). These alliances have nabled the company to share the risks associated with the ventures because some projects are too complicated for Etihad to handle on their own. (Badaracco, 1991). By collaborating with other firms worldwide, Etihad are overcoming barriers to entry in new geographical markets since they are a growing company looking to expand globally. Organizations expanding overseas find that they require a local partner due to unfamiliarity with the local conditions (Badaracco, 1991). Strategic alliances enable firms to exchange favours such as improving product quality, technologies and factors related to products.Sustainable competitive advantage indicates that companies could maintain their completive advantage for a long term (Culpan, 2008). Through their strategic alliance with Sabre in December 2011, Etihad gained access to integrated software across its reservations, inventory marketing and e-commerce, distribution and depart ure control operations. The benefits from this alliance included improved joint market share which has the potential to generate over $25 million dollars per annum for both companies (Etihad, 2012). . 0 Conclusion This report attempts to analyse the environment in which Etihad Airways Company has to maintain its business profitable and prosperous. The report covers main marketing strategies and tools Etihad uses for the purpose of identifying and understanding its customers’ base and keeping a relationship with it. Finally, the extent to which these marketing strategies help to keep the business and its competitive advantages sustainable is evaluated and critically accessed. 8. 0 References Abecassis-Moedas, C. nd c-Jouini, S. (2008), â€Å"Absorptive Capacity and Source-Recipient Complementarity in Designing New Products: An Empirically Derived Framework,†Ã‚  Journal of Product Innovation Management,  25(5), pp. 473–90. Badaracco, J. (1991), The Knowledge Lin k: How Firms Compete through Strategic Alliances, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Baines, P. , Fill, C. and Page, K. (2008), Marketing, 1st ed. , New York: Oxford Press. Bucyk, C. (2012), â€Å"James Hogan Etihad Airways CEO Interview†, Air Transport World, Jan. , p 50-51. Culpan, R. 2008), â€Å"The role of strategic alliances in gaining sustainable  competitive advantage  for firms†, Management Revue, 19(1/2), pp. 94-105. Doyle, P. and  Stern, P. (2006), Marketing Management and Strategy. 4th Ed. , Pearson: Prentice Hall. Doz, Y. L. (1996), â€Å"The Evolution of Cooperation in Strategic Alliances: Initial Conditions or Learning Processes? † Strategic Management Journal, 17(Summer), pp. 55-83. Emirates Airways (2012), [Online] Available at: www. emirates. com (Accessed on: 22 March 2012). Etihad Airways (2009), Corporate Facts and Figures, [Online] Available at: www. tihadairways. com (Accessed on: 22 March 2012). Etihad Airways (2012), [Online] A vailable at: www. etihadairways. com (Accessed on: 22 March 2012). Gwinner, K. P. , and Eaton, J. (1999), â€Å"Building Brand Image Through Event Sponsorship: The Role of Image Transfer†, Journal of Advertising, 28 (4), pp. 47-57. Hooley, G. J. and Saunders, J. (1993), Competitive Positioning: A Key To Market Positioning, Pearson: Prentice Hall. Hughes, J and  Weiss, J. (2007), â€Å"Simple Rules for Making Alliances Work,†Ã‚  Harvard Business Review, 85 (November), pp. 122–31. Ireland, R. ,  Michael,  D.Hitt, A. , and Vaidyanath, D. (2002), â€Å"Alliance Management as a Source of Competitive Advantage,†Ã‚  Journal of Management, 28(3), pp. 413–46. Kaplan, R. S. , David P. Norton, and Rugelsjoen, B. (2010), â€Å"Managing Alliances with the Balanced Scorecard†, Harvard Business Review, 88 (January–February), pp. 114–120. Kotler, P. , Wong, V. , Saunders, J. and Armstrong, G (2005), Principles of Marketing. 4th ed. Londo n: Prentice Hall. Kotler, W. K. (2009), â€Å"Advantage competition of inter-partner learning in International Strategic Alliance†, The Journal of Global Business, 3(2), pp. 23-128. Lei, D. and Slocum, J. W. Jr (2005), â€Å"Strategic and organizational requirements for competitive advantage†, Academy of Management Executive, 19(1), pp. 31-45. McKechnie, D. S. , Grant, J. , and Katsioloudes, M. (2008), â€Å"Positions and positioning: strategy simply stated†, Business Strategy Series, 9(5), pp. 224 – 230, [Online] Available at: http://www. emeraldinsight. com (Accessed on: 20 March 2010). Meenagham, T. (1991). â€Å"Sponsorship-Legitimising the Medium†, European Journal of Marketing, 25(11), pp. 5-10 Milne, D. 2009), â€Å"King of the Skies†, [Online] Available at: http://www. businessmanagementme. com (Accessed on: 20 March 2010). Ohmae, K. (1989), â€Å"The Global Logic of Strategic Alliances,†Ã‚  Harvard Business Review, 67 (Marchà ¢â‚¬â€œApril), pp. 143-154. Park, S. H. and Ungson, G. R. (2001). ‘Interfirm rivalry and managerial complexity: A conceptual framework of alliance failure’, Organization Science, 12, pp. 37 – 53. Porter, M. E. (1980), Competitive Strategy, New York: Free Press. Quatar Airways (2012), [Online] Available at: www. quatarairways. om (Accessed on: 22 March 2012). Teichert, T. , Shehu, E. and Von Wartburg, I. (2008), â€Å"Customer Segmentation Revisited: A Case Study of the Airline Industry†. Transportation Research, A(42), pp. 227-242. Vander Kraats, S. A. , (1993), â€Å"Gaining a Competitive Edge through Airline Alliances†, Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness, 10(2), pp. 56 – 64. [Online] Available at: http://www. emeraldinsight. com (Accessed on: 23 March 2010). Zhang, H. Shu, c. Jiang, Malta, A. 2010), â€Å"Managing  Ã‚  Knowledge for Innovation  Ã‚  the Role of Co-o peration, Competition, and Alliance  Ã‚  Nationality†, Journal of International  Ã‚  Marketing  Ã‚  Association, 18, pp. 74-94. 1. Presentation and Style (10 marks) | Mark range| Mark| The work is well structured and has a logical and well ordered flow between issues. Language used is sophisticated and articulate. Referencing is consistent and uses the Harvard method. | 8-10| | There is a clear underlying structure to the work which makes it easy to read and understand. Referencing is consistent. 6-7| | The work is acceptably presented and has a clear structure. The arguments are clearly expressed although the language and terminology used lacks sophistication. Referencing is consistent. | 5| | The work lacks a central narrative which links the issues discussed together in a coherent way. Referencing is haphazard. | 4| | The work has no real structure and is more a collection of loosely related issues than anything. Referencing is haphazard and weak. There are errors of spelling, grammar and punctuation. | 0-3| | 2. Use of Appropriate Models and Concepts (25 marks) | Mark range| Mark|A clear and sensible choice of models and concepts has been made with which to carry out analysis. The models are used well and develop clear and robust analysis which shows an excellent understanding of the model and how it can be applied. | 18-25| | A good choice of models and concepts is made and these models and concepts are used appropriately and correctly. Conclusions may be drawn from the use of models but these conclusions lack a little in terms of sophistication. | 15-17| | Models chosen are appropriate to the example under discussion but the analysis derived from them is weak or superficial.The use of models does little more than rearrange or repackage information about the company. | 12-14| | The use of models is haphazard and there is no clear rationale for why they have been chosen. The models deliver limited analysis and offer few if any insights into the example under discussion. | 10-11| | Limited or no use of models is demonstrated. Information about the company and its environment is simply described and there is nothing to guide or focus the analysis| 0-9| | 3. Evidence of Research about the Company and its Business Environment (25 marks) | Mark range| Mark|The assignment uses a variety of sources, all of them reliable, to provide an excellent level of detail. A systematic approach is taken to the gathering of evidence and information about the company and its environment. Discussions are supported by robust evidence throughout. | 18-25| | A good selection of sources are used to provide information about the company and its environment and these are used to reach sound conclusions| 15-17| | Different sources may be used to gather information but there is no real attempt made to distinguish between the quality of information presented.The use of information is unstructured and haphazard and provides a limited base for conclusion s and discussion. | 12-14| | Whilst there is some information provided about the company, it will tend to be anecdotal and lacking in robustness. There is no real evidence of a systematic approach to gathering information. Conclusions reached do not reflect the quality of evidence provided. | 10-11| | The assignment is too reliant on just one or two sources of information about the company and no attempt is made to examine the reliability and quality of those sources.Material presented is accepted uncritically and without question. | 0-9| | 4. Discussion and Analysis (25 marks) | Mark range| Mark| The assignment has a clear focus on the question posed and answers it using sophisticated analysis and discussion which combines theory, models and robust data. There is a clear structure and line of argument throughout the assignment. | 18-25| | The assignment contains some good discussion and analysis. There is an attempt to integrate theory, models and evidence. There is some structure to the assignment and a focus on the assignment requirements. 15-17| | There is a blend of analysis and description but the assignment overall leans towards the descriptive rather than the analytical. Models may be used but there is no real attention paid to how theory can develop analysis and insights. At times, the assignment fails to focus on the question posed. | 12-14| | The assignment lacks a clear structure which focuses on the question posed and is mainly descriptive with no real analytical content. The assignment focuses on what has happened and makes no real attempt to use theory, models or evidence to explain why it may have happened and the implications of such things.The work is mainly descriptive. | 10-11| | The assignment is little more than a collection of loosely related points about a company and the environment in which it operates. There is no integration between theory, models and evidence at all. | 0-9| | 5. Conclusions (15 marks) | Mark range| Mark| Conclusion s reached are robust, clear and an accurate reflection of the preceding sections of the report. Conclusions draw together the different strands of theory and practice developed in the assignment. The conclusions show a high level of understanding of marketing strategy. 10-15| | Conclusions are a good reflection of the assignment overall and round things off in a clear and competent manner. An understanding of marketing strategy is demonstrated but differentiating between important and less important issues needed development. | 8-9| | Reflections are a reasonable reflection of the work in the main body of the assignment. No real distinction is shown between important and less important issues but there is an adequate understanding of marketing strategy demonstrated. 6-7| | Conclusions do little more than restate what was in the main body of the assignment and so lack impact. No distinction is made between important and less important issues and limited understanding of the subject m atter is demonstrated. | 4-5| | Conclusions are weak, underdeveloped and have no real relationship with the work which preceded them. Conclusions do not suggest an understanding of either the theory or practice of marketing strategy. | 0-3| | Overall Comments: Key Strengths Key Weaknesses and areas of improvement| | Final Assignment Grade (including Mark Contribution)| |

Friday, January 10, 2020

The Impact of the Stamp Act on the American Revolution

The Impact of the Stamp Act on the American Revolution The Stamp Act was essentially a tax on all printed materials and commercial documents. This also included newspapers, pamphlets, bills, legal documents, licenses, almanacs, dice, and playing cards. These materials had to carry a special stamp which needed to be purchased. This tax, along with the Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Quartering Act, and the Quebec Act, made up the Intolerable Acts.The Stamp Act was created to help cover the 10,000 soldiers left in the colonies after the French and Indian War. The war had put Britain over ? 130,000,000 by 1764. It was created by George Grenville and went into effect on November 1, 1765. This was the first direct tax imposed on the colonists by the British. When news of the Stamp Act reached the colonies in May, the Virginia House of Burgesses stayed in session to pass a set of resolutions protesting the tax.More newspapers throughout the col onies circulated Virginia’s Resolves. As it made its way around the colonies, resolutions grew more numerous and radical. Massachusetts’s legislature circulated a call for a unified response. In October 1765, 27 delegates from 9 colonies met in New York City. This group came to be known as the Stamp Act Congress. On October 19th, the congress adopted 14 resolutions. These resolutions were then forwarded on to the King and the Parliament. It was repealed on March 18, 1766.This was the same day the Declaratory Act passes. This act gave Parliament the right to make any law for the colonies. Unrest in the colonies died down after the Stamp Act was repealed, but the committees that it had created remained. These committees included the Committees of Correpondence, Sons of Liberty, and the boycotts were refined and used later to protest future British taxes. These acts along with the issue of taxation without representation led to the American Revolution.

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Reflection Paper on Organizational Behavior Course

Reflection Paper on Organizational Behavior Course When the Philippine Army (PA) gave me a Masteral Degree Scholarship, I was told to take a Human Resource Management (HRM) course. Since I chose to take my graduate course in UP Diliman {where I took my BA in Public Administration undergraduate course before going to the Philippine Military Academy (PMA)}, I enrolled in the School of Labor and Industrial Relations (SOLAIR) because they have an equivalent graduate course in HRM, which is the Master of Industrial Relations where I can specialize in Human Resource Development. The intent of my graduate study is to educate me with the latest trends, principles, procedures, programs, policies and concepts in HRM, and be able relate and apply†¦show more content†¦So in a way many would say that it is very easy to manage a military unit or organization since everyone must follow orders, but this is easier said than done. In my experience, especially in my field assignment in a comba t unit in a critical area, as a platoon leader I had my initial challenge as an officer. â€Å"Greenhorn† as I am, leading a group of majority veteran soldiers, wherein their previous area of operations enabled them to be involved in combat encounters with the communist insurgents with a more experienced and senior platoon leader, it is like a rookie trying to be a go to guy in a basketball team, where I have to earn their respect first before being accepted truly as their leader. Yes, they will follow your orders, but there will be times where this rule will be challenged especially in combat situations. Now here lies the relevance of the course on organizational behavior. Knowledge in human personality, perception and attitude would indeed be very important in this situation, although this is well covered in my undergraduate course in management, the ideas of Fred Luthan’s on the chapter on Personality, Perception and Employee Attitude; and Natasha Marinkovic Grbaâ⠂¬â„¢s (Lisa Matthewman, et al. â€Å"Work Psychology†, Chapter 3) chapter on Personality and Individual Differences refreshes my previous knowledge on the topic andShow MoreRelatedreflection paper on organizational behavior699 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿BUSI 2101 – Organizational Behavior INDIVIDUAL REFLECTION PAPER The main objective of this semester was to learn various organizational behaviors that are conducted in a business environment outside the classroom; these would help us as students and as future business entrepreneurs. Throughout the semester, every week different professors came and gave us lectures. Each lecture was about different topic with professors of different departments. 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The objective of the training was highlightedRead MoreThe Growing Importance Of Ethical Business Managers942 Words   |  4 PagesHillary Shaw, 2010). This recent pattern of business misconduct (Michaelson, 2015) and single-minded pursuit of profit has made the promotion of ethical values a key concern for modern business organizations (Julia Shaw Hillary Shaw, 2010). This paper will discuss how literary fiction (i.e. novels, literature, narrative, fiction, drama, comics) can help organizations develop ethical managers by discussing (1) the growi ng importance of ethical business managers (2) the benefits of a novel approach

Monday, December 16, 2019

Quality Education in the Philippines - 4065 Words

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Overview What is good quality education? What is the use of this to our daily lives? What will the effects be on our future? These are but just a few questions that run through our mind when we think of what education is. Education, for many, is the forefront in building our future; it gives us the power of knowledge that helps us cope up with the different steps in our lives. Some think of it as a mere process to gain access to monetary security and better life, but this is not mere education should be. â€Å"It is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty and inequality and lays a foundation for sustained economic growth.† (2008) In my own words, education is merely a step to make†¦show more content†¦Explanation: The author used the principle of cause and effect to give out reasons on why promoting values and motivating students will increase their perception in studying. The author also wants to express the possible effects if the teachers and parents will help in enhancing the skill of the child in his/ her aspect. Comparison and Contrast An organizational structure of text in which a description of similarities and differences among two or more things occurs. Explanation: The author used the principle of comparison and contrast to differentiate the two Philippine college educational programs which are the normal and the ladderized program. By giving their differences and similarities the author achieved part of his paper which is to differentiate the two educational systems. B. Conceptual Framework Explanation: The author shows in this simple diagram what he points out on this paper. These topics will be discussed in this paper. The origination and development of the Philippine education system since many do not know where it began. The differences between the two modern programs, the normal and the ladderized because some students are confused on the two programs since the ladderized program was just adapted by the Philippines on the year 2006. Motivating students can lead to many effects according to (Calderon, 1998) there are several definitions of motivation but they allShow MoreRelatedIssues and Problems in the Philippine Educational System: A Challenge Towards the Attainment of Quality Education1986 Words   |  8 PagesProblems in the Philippine Educational System: A Challenge Towards the Attainment of Quality Education Our country has gone through many changes and development for the past few years. The continuous process made great impacts in the lives of millions of Filipinos. Relatively, the changes have given us advantages not to mention the disadvantages it brought causing downfall to many people. 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Sunday, December 8, 2019

Viability and Issues in ERP Implementation

Question: Discuss the viability and issues in ERP implementation. Answer: Global Bike Inc is a multinational corporation headquartered in the US. The brand manufactures bikes, which can be used for racing. It has implemented a ERP Sap processes in its organization which has played an efficient role in its growth. It has been able to coordinate its four main processes which are finance, marketing, human resource and operations. This system has enabled the business enterprise to complement its expansion initiatives in the global market. As such, the brand has been able to deliver high performance bikes to the rides in the global market. According to May et al. (2013), the ERP system implemented in the business organization has been assisted the business enterprise to diverge into two major business areas in the US and the Germany. Both the production plants have manufacturing centers as well as the production centers. In addition, GBI has established a partner network to maximize its scale of operations and the scale of operations in the global market. However, Staehr (2012) noted that there remains pertinent issues in the implementation of the ERP system which are- integration of ERP, software goals as well as the customization of the software as per the organizational needs. In addition, there is flexibility as well as the presence of legacy systems in the business organization. According to Kim et al. (2013)., identifying the needs of the business organizations as well establishing a structured budget are the relevant factors that must be considered while adopting a specific ERP SAP system in the business factors . Thus, Global Bike Inc has to take into account the above attributes while implementing a specific SAP ERP system to satisfy its operational needs. Viability of ERP integration According to Meyr et al, (2015), the SAP ERP system has been able to gather essential Data of Global Bike Inc and has coordinated the functional as well as the non- functional business processes .The ERP system has also enabled the business entity to offer SAP career opportunities to the new recruits in Global Bike Inc. This has assisted the business enterprise to use ERP SAP to enhance the operational policies of the brand. The GBI annual report has been registered in the website of SAP UAC. Mamoghli et al. (2015), the SAP ERP system has been playing a pivotal role to assist the business enterprise to align its operational activities to the long-term goals and objectives of the business organization. Thus, the ERP system has been playing an effective role for the growth of the company. The GBI Global office is divided into two major operational centers, which are - GBI US and GBI Germany. In the GBI US, the ERP system has been playing an effective role in coordinating the Miami centre of distribution, the distribution centre of SanDiego as well as the Dallas manufacturing plant. According to Andersson Olandersson (2013), the cross-functional activities of Distribution and the Manufacturing have been achieved through the inherent support of the ERP system. In this regard, it can be said that the SAP ERP system has made it possible to produce goods with the minimum amount of time and effort. In the case of GBI Germany; the SAP ERP processes have reduced the operational expenses of the business enterprise. Thus, Alaskari et al.(2013) noted that greater coordination has been achieved between the Heidelberg manufacturing plant as well as the Hamburg distribution centre. Issues in ERP Implementation The following are the challenges or issues of ERP Implementation ERP integration - ERP integration has been a critical issue for Global Bike Inc. According to Johansson, and Carlsson (2013), there are uncertainties regarding the selection of the processes that are to be integrated with the help of the ERP software. In a multinational corporation like the Global Bike Inc, choosing of processes that are to be coordinated within the ERP software remains critical. Therefore, it remains essential that the ERP software is implemented in a manner which reduces the operational costs of a business enterprise. Developing ERP software goals - Ostroukh et al. (2014) mentioned that setting of ERP goals is essential in implementing the ERP activities in a structured manner. As such, it remains essential that there is a specific need for the implementation of ERP system. This can result in unnecessary costs for the management of a business enterprise and wastage of resources. Powell (2013) mentioned that having a fixed ERP goal could be complicated in the case of a large business organization with its operations spread out in multiple countries. Therefore, this has been a pertinent issue for GBI in the context of its existing operations. This has also hampered the procedure of recognizing the need and setting proper goals for the adoption of the ERP system. Customization - According to Andersson and Olandersson (2013), the ERP system requires in-depth customization to suit the business enterprise in making specific structured goals. These results in the project being delayed as well as the cost overruns associated with the project. According to Johansson and Carlsson (2013), the ERP software shall require total customization of the system to adapt to the needs of a particular business enterprise. This may hamper the operational functionalities of a business enterprise and reduce the productivity in the initial stages. Flexibility Meyr et al (2015) mentioned that the ERP system has not been flexible enough to deal with necessary changes in the external market environment. Thus, any changes in the external market environment relating to changes in the consumer preferences as well as the demand of the goods or change in the economic condition of a particular place shall not be provided with an appropriate business solution within the ERP system. May et al. (2013) mentioned that the re-engineering of the processes would be pertinent requirement to offer benefits to the organization. However, this would not be possible, as it requires considerable time and resources for the business enterprise. In addition, there would be resistance from within the business organization, since the workforce would not be adequately trained enough to deal with such alterations in the workplace. Legacy systems - There has been issues regarding the integration of different functional systems including the legacy systems in the business organization. The successful implementation of different ERP systems is concerned with the adhering to the legacy systems as per the rules as the regulations of a particular place (Johansson Carlson, 2013). Coordinating different modules - Powell (2013) mentioned that ERP requires the coordination of different functional modules within the ERP system. These include- the production planning as well as the inventory control. Besides this, the functions of finance as well as the human resource policies have to be managed efficiently to serve the overall purpose of business organization. In this regard. it can be said that the the issue of implementing an effective ERP system lies in executing an appropriate combination of technologies, policies as well as the issue of a perfect association of the internal and external business processes . In addition, it relates to dealing with the financial as well as the non-financial resources of the business enterprise. To enhance the ERP system it is essential that it is combined with other business softwares which are - system of supply chain, CRM as well as the Knowledge management (Staehr et al., 2012). In addition, it includes B2B exchange and the ecommerce storefront available online. However, this attribute in most organizations has not been emphasized upon. According to Andersson and Olandersson (2013), it is essential that this ERP is analyzed in an adequate manner to understand its in-depth methodology and architecture. This would assist to gain maximum utility from the SAP ERP processes implemented in the business organization. References Alaskari, O., Ahmad, M. M., Dhafr, N., Pinedo-Cuenca, R. (2013). Critical successful factors (CSFs) for successful implementation of lean tools and ERP systems Andersson, J., Olandersson, B. (2013). Strategies in implementation of ERP systems-The impact of vendor-consultant relationships on the role of the consultant in ERP implementation. Johansson, B., Carlsson, S. A. (2013). An Approach for Identifying Business Requirements for Development of Prospective ERP Systems. In Building Sustainable Information Systems (pp. 247-257). Springer US. Kim, J., Nicolaou, A. I., Vasarhelyi, M. A. (2013). The Impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems on the Audit Report Lag. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting, 10(1), 63-88. Mamoghli, S., Goepp, V., Botta-Genoulaz, V. (2015). Aligning ERP systems with companies real needs: an Operational Model Basedmethod. Enterprise Information Systems, 1-38. May, J., Dhillon, G., Caldeira, M. (2013). Defining value-based objectives for ERP systems planning. Decision Support Systems, 55(1), 98-109. Meyr, H., Wagner, M., Rohde, J. (2015). Structure of advanced planning systems. In Supply chain management and advanced planning (pp. 99-106). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Ostroukh, A. V., Gusenitsa, D. O., Golubkova, V. B., Yurchik, P. F. (2014). Integration of PDM and ERP systems within a unified information space of an enterprise. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE), 16(02), V6. Powell, D. (2013). ERP systems in lean production: new insights from a review of lean and ERP literature. International Journal of Operations Production Management, 33(11/12), 1490-1510. Staehr, L., Shanks, G., Seddon, P. B. (2012). An explanatory framework for achieving business benefits from ERP systems. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(6), 424.